Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag Germany's federal parliamentthe Landtags of the various states, and local elections.
Several articles in several parts of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany govern elections and establish constitutional requirements such as the secret ballotand requirement that all elections be conducted in a free and fair manner.
The Basic Law also requires that the federal legislature enact detailed federal laws to govern elections; electoral law s. One such article is Article 38, regarding the election of deputies in the federal Bundestag. Article German federal elections are for all members of the Bundestagwhich in turn determines who is the Chancellor of Germany. Federal elections were held inand in After the unification of Germany under Emperor Wilhelm I inelections were held to the German Reichstag or 'Imperial Assembly', which supplanted its namesake, the Reichstag of the Norddeutscher Bund.
With the Weimar Republic 's Constitution ofthe voting system changed from single-member constituencies to proportional representation. The election age was reduced from 25 to 20 years of age. Following the Nazi seizure of power in Januaryanother national election was held on 5 March.
This was the last competitive election before World War II, although it was neither free nor fair. Violence and intimidation by the SturmabteilungSS and Der Stahlhelm had been underway for months against trade-unionists, communists, social democrats, and even centre-right Catholics. By placing their rivals in jail and intimidating others not to take their seats, the Nazis went from a plurality to the majority. Just two weeks after election, the Enabling Act of effectively gave Hitler dictatorial power.
Three more elections were held in Nazi Germany before the war. They all took the form of a one-question referendum, asking voters to approve a predetermined list of candidates composed exclusively of Nazis and nominally independent "guests" of the party.
Federal elections are conducted approximately every four years, resulting from the constitutional requirement for elections to be held 46 to 48 months after the assembly of the Reichstag. Should the Bundestag be dismissed before the four-year period has ended, elections must be held within days.
The exact date of the election is chosen by the President  and must be a Sunday or public holiday. German nationals over the age of 18 who have resided in Germany for at least three months are eligible to vote. Eligibility for candidacy is essentially the same. The federal legislature in Germany has a one chamber parliament—the Bundestag Federal Diet ; the Bundesrat Federal Council represents the regions and is not considered a chamber as its members are not elected.
The Bundestag is elected using a mixed member proportional system. The Bundestag has nominal members, elected for a four-year term. Half, members, are elected in single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post votingwhile a further members are allocated from party lists to achieve a proportional distribution in the legislature, conducted according to a form of proportional representation called the Mixed member proportional representation system MMP.It first won representation at the national level inand from to it formed a coalition government with the Social Democratic Party SPD.
The Green Party traces its origins to the student protest movement of the s, the environmentalist movement of the s, and the peace movement of the early s. The focus of the environmentalist protest was nuclear powerand the movement was directed especially at German labour, businesses, and politicians, all of whom enthusiastically endorsed its use, particularly after the sharp rise in oil prices in That year the first Green representative was elected to the state parliament of Bremen, and in January the party held a conference in Karlsruhewhere it officially formed itself as a federal party.
Widespread opposition to the deployment of a new generation of nuclear missiles in West Germany sparked a nationwide peace movement that helped the Greens enter the national parliament in with 5. In the mids the party was torn by internal dissension between the realists Realoswho favoured compromise and cooperation with the SPDand the fundamentalists Fundiswho rejected compromise. In the Greens entered a coalition government with the SPD in Hesse, and by the end of the s the realists were clearly in ascendancy.
In the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in the Soviet Unionthe Greens captured 8. In a Green Party opposed to reunification was established in East Germany. Meanwhile, the West German Greens could not secure the minimum 5 percent of the national vote and were thus excluded from parliament. For other Greens, however, the victory was bittersweet.Nazi Germany : Every Month
Once committed to nonviolence, the withdrawal of Germany from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATOand unilateral disarmament, the Greens supported participation of German military forces in Kosovo and Serbia in and troop deployments in Afghanistan as part of the global war on terrorism in Indeed, several Green members of parliament voted against the government on the issue of deploying troops in Afghanistan.
In the Greens scored their biggest success to date, winning 8. The Greens campaigned on their own and did marginally worse, winning 8.
Nazi Germany Timeline
The election left the Greens at a crossroads, with the party part of no governing coalition at either the state or national levels for the first time in two decades and with Fischer, their longtime leader, retiring from public life. With strong environmental protection endorsed by all the major parties, the Greens found themselves in search of new issues and a more modern image.
In the parliamentary elections the Greens improved on their results, winning Troubles at nuclear plants in Japantriggered by an earthquake and tsunami in Marchbuoyed Green numbers at the polls in German state elections later that month. Print Cite. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.
External Websites. David P.The hard times that swept over the Continent in the late s transformed widespread popular discontent in the German Confederation into a full-blown revolution. After the middle of the decade, a severe economic depression halted industrial expansion and aggravated urban unemployment.
At the same time, serious crop failures led to a major famine in the area from Ireland to Russian Poland.
In the German states, the hungry s drove the lower classes, which had long been suffering from the economic effects of industrial and agricultural rationalization, to the point of open rebellion.
There were sporadic hunger riots and violent disturbances in several of the states, but the signal for a concerted uprising did not come until early in with the exciting news that the regime of the bourgeois king Louis-Philippe had been overthrown by an insurrection in Paris February 22— The result was a series of sympathetic revolutions against the governments of the German Confederation, most of them mild but a few, as in the case of the fighting in Berlinbitter and bloody.
When on March 13 Metternich, the proud symbol of the established order, was forced to resign his position in the Austrian cabinet, the princes hastened to make peace with the opposition in order to forestall republican and socialist experiments like those in France.
Prominent liberals were appointed to the state ministries, and civic reforms were introduced to safeguard the rights of the citizens and the powers of the legislature. But even more important was the attempt to achieve political unification through a national assembly representing all of Germany.
Elections were held soon after the spring uprising had subsided, and on May 18 the Frankfurt National Assembly met in Frankfurt am Main to prepare the constitution for a free and united fatherland.
Its convocation represented the realization of the hopes that nationalists had cherished for more than a generation. Within the space of a few weeks, those who had fought against the particularistic system of the restoration for so long suddenly found themselves empowered with a popular mandate to rebuild the foundations of political and social life in Germany.
It was an intoxicating moment. Once the spring uprising was over, the parties and classes that had participated in it began to quarrel about the nature of the new order that was to take the place of the old.Mba application essay editing
There were, first of all, sharp differences between the liberals and the democrats. While the former had comfortable majorities in most of the state legislatures as well as in the Frankfurt parliament, the latter continued to plead, agitate, and conspire for a more radical course of action. There were also bitter disputes over the form that national unification should assume. Finally, there was a basic conflict between poor and marginalized social groups, many of whom wanted protection against mechanized production and rural impoverishment, and the business interests who sought to use their new political influence to promote economic growth and freedom of enterprise.
Popular support for the revolution, which had made the defeat of legitimism during the March days possible, began to dwindle with the realization that the liberals would do no more to solve the problems of the masses than the conservatives had done. While the Frankfurt parliament was debating the constitution under which Germany would be governed, its following diminished and its authority declined.
The forces of the right, recovering from the demoralization of their initial defeat, began to regain confidence in their own power and legitimacy. In the summer of the Habsburg armies crushed the uprising in Bohemia and checked the insurrection in Italy. By the end of October they had subjugated Vienna itself, the centre of the revolutionary movement, and now only Hungary was still in arms against the imperial government.
Timeline of German history
At the same time, in Prussia the irresolute Frederick William IV had been gradually persuaded by the conservatives to embark on a course of piecemeal reaction. Early in December he dissolved the constituent assembly that had been meeting in Berlin, unilaterally promulgated his own constitution for the kingdom—which combined conservative and liberal elements—and proceeded little by little to reassert the prerogatives of the crown.
Among the secondary states there was also a noticeable shift to the right, as particularist princes and legitimist aristocrats began to recover their courage.
By the time the Frankfurt parliament completed its deliberations in the spring ofthe revolution was everywhere at ebb tide.This is a timeline of German historycomprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Germany and its predecessor states.
To read about the background to these events, see History of Germany. See also the list of German monarchs and list of Chancellors of Germany and the list of years in Germany. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 11 March The British Museum.
Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 6 April The Franks. Mustafa Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 25 October International Co-operation and Conflict s—s.
Archived from the original on 2 May Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism. Archived from the original on 29 April Giangreco and Robert E. Spokane Daily Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 May Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 2 July Years in Germany —present.Thesis defense committee member services address
A feminist with an unconventional lifestyle, Anita Augspurg was determined to study law — even though women were not allowed to in Germany. She studied in Zurich and became the first doctor of law of the German Empire in However, it took 25 more years for women to be licensed to practice law in the country. The feminist movement activist left Germany when the Nazis took power in While it was widely believed at the time that gender roles were determined by biological factors, Hedwig Dohm was one of the first feminist thinkers to maintain that it was culture, socialization and education that imposed the patterns.
She campaigned to allow equal access to education for boys and girls and was convinced that women's employment was the path to independence and a free life. While the constitution proclaimed by the National Assembly in Frankfurt in was based on democratic principles, it was an all-male domain.
Women had no right of assembly, no suffrage and no right to work at the time. Active in the city of Ulm pictureAgnes Schultheiss was committed to social and political causes. Inshe founded the Good Shepherd association, which took care of young girls who were expelled from their families for becoming pregnant out of wedlock. Inthe pioneering reformist Marie Munk became Germany's first judge. She, however, did not get to keep her position for very long. She was dismissed in because of her Jewish roots.
She fled to the US in Like most young girls at the time, she learned to embroider, knit and sew. No one could have predicted the political role she would late play.Essays about school history
In she was elected to the Parliamentary Council, the body in charge of drafting the Basic Law. The council included 61 men and 4 women, among them Elisabeth Selbert. The Hollywood star, however, had way more to offer. At the beginning of World War II, the tech genius developed a radio guidance system that was later incorporated into Bluetooth technology. No one knows how much she may have contributed to the first theory of relativity, but she was definitely Albert Einstein's most important intellectual partner at that time, and they founded a family together.
Her essay was part of a increasingly louder movement protesting discrimination against women. Some visionaries demanded equality for women very early on, and Olympe de Gouges was one of them, says legal historian Anna Katharina Mangold, adding however that the women's movement only developed as a political movement in the midth century. It wasn't even about the vote at the beginning, Mangold says, but about basic legal rights. Women in Germany were fed up with that situation.
Women stood side by side with men in many wartime situations. They also took on men's jobs in factories, "so it had become much more difficult to explain why they still couldn't vote," the historian says. Just before the war ended, women's suffrage supporters thought they had finally reached their goal. But he didn't mention women's suffrage at all, which angered the activists. The women movement's different wings — including bourgeois middle-class and leftist activists — joined forces and moved into the spotlight with petitions, assemblies and other joint actions.
By November 12,the legal basis for women's right to vote was in place. On that day, the Council of People's Deputies — the government at the time — announced that all elections for public office would be conducted according to the same secret, direct and general right to vote for men and women of at least 20 years of age.Emperor William II abdicates and goes into exile.
Beginning of the Weimar Republic, based on a new constitution. Its early years are marked by high unemployment and rampant inflation. France, Belgium occupy the Ruhr over failed reparation payments.
Hyperinflation leads to economic collapse. Weimar Republic gives way to a one-party state. Systematic persecution of Germany's Jews escalates. Hitler proclaims the Third Reich in Nuremberg Laws deprive German Jews of citizenship. Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass sees orchestrated attacks on Jews and their property as well as synagogues. Millions of people of all ages, mostly Jews but also large numbers of Gypsies, Slavs and other races, the disabled, homosexuals and religious dissenters, die as the Nazis implement an extermination policy in the death camps of eastern Europe.
Allies divide Germany into occupation zones. East Germany is led by Walter Ulbricht. New Chancellor Helmut Schmidt continues Ostpolitik. Protests across East Germany lead to rapid collapse of Communist rule. Germans from East and West tear down Berlin Wall. It allows a limited number of skilled non-EU workers into the country.
Germany says it will make as much as bn euros available in loan guarantees and capital to bolster the European banking system. Chancellor Merkel's governing centre-right coalition suffers a defeat in regional elections in North-Rhine Westphalia, thereby losing its majority in the upper house of the federal parliament.
Economists attributed the rate to a recovery in exports.This post is part of our collection of resources on Nazi Germany. Click here for our comprehensive information resource on the society, ideology, and key events in Nazi Germany.
Scott Michael Rank, Ph. Additional Resources About Nazi Germany. During its first meeting a 25 point programme was announced. SA Sturm Abteilung formed.
Known as Stormtroopers these were the party militia. They were also known as brownshirts because of the brown shirts that formed part of their uniform. The leaders were arrested and charged with treason. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison but only served 10 months. During his time in prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf. SS Schutzstaffel formed. The party had had a youth section since its beginning, but this new re-organised Hitler Youth was more integrated into the SA.
The first annual party conference to be held at Nuremburg. Known as the Nuremburg Rally all subsequent annual meetings were held at Nuremburg.Executive career coaching resume
Great Depression — The world depression saw many Germans face unemployment and poverty. Support for the Nazi party increased dramatically. The Nazi party gained Hitler defined the Nazi party foreign policy. The prime goal was to secure lebensraum living space for the German master race.
How German women obtained the right to vote 100 years ago
The Reichstag Fire. As a result the KPD, which was the second largest party in Germany, was banned. The banning of the Communist party gave the Nazis a clear majority in government.
Enabling Act gave Hitler power to make laws without consulting the Reichstag for a period of four years. The move was encouraged by Joseph Goebbels, Head of Propaganda.
Many members of the SA were committed socialists and demanded that Nazi policy embrace socialist aims. This was not a direction the Nazis wished to follow so the SA were eliminated. President Hindenburg died. Hitler combined the post of President and Chancellor and called himself Fuhrer.
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